Rinse, gel, foam – What is the difference?


If we are about to find a proper alcohol-based hand hygiene product, we can select from a broad spectrum; liquid format hand sanitizers (rinses), gels and foams are available across a wide spectrum. But which one is the best, and what factors should we consider when choosing? Rinses were the first alcohol-based hand disinfectant products. They were not skin-friendly, caused skin irritation and dryness for many healthcare workers (HCW). That is why gels and foams were developed. In 2002, Kramer et al. compared several hand gels and rinses. They concluded that rinses have significantly greater bacterial reduction factor than gels…. Read more

Costs related to Electronic Compliance Monitoring Systems


Previously we summarized what types of Electronic Compliance Monitoring System exist, and described how ECM systems are used in the real clinical settings. Now, we are further investigating what costs are associated with these systems. Installation cost Installation of a location-based monitoring system is a big investment. Armellino et al. 2012 described the installation of a video-monitoring system in a 17-bed medical ICU, costing $50,000, and it is not including the salary of the observer who manually analyses the recorded video [1, 2]. Morgan et al. 2012 installed an electronic dispenser counter system. They estimated the installation and maintenance cost… Read more

Electronic Compliance Monitoring Systems in the real hospital environment


In our previous posts, we summarized what types of Electronic Compliance Monitoring (ECM) Systems exist, and showed their strengths and weaknesses. Now we show some actual clinical settings where ECM systems were applied. ECM and data volumes The main advantage of ECM systems is that they can monitor hand hygiene compliance 24/7, and can gather plenty of data. Marra et al. 2010 compared direct observation with compliance measured by electronic dispenser counter. They found that direct observation can only monitor 1.3% of the hand hygiene events [1]. In McCalla et al. 2017 survey human observers collected 480 hand hygiene events,… Read more

Electronic Compliance Monitoring Systems


In our previous posts, we demonstrated that direct observation of hand hygiene is labor-intensive, time-consuming and expensive. Electronic monitoring systems (ECM) can eliminate the shortcomings of the direct observation. Now, we summarize the different concepts of ECM. Video-monitored, direct observation These systems, like Arrowsight, provide remote video auditing service. In this case, the observer is not present in the ward, but sitting in a monitoring center. The observation this way becomes more convenient and requires less human resource. These systems are not automated, rather technology-supported, as data is always processed by a human observer. Main question related to these systems… Read more