Many infection prevention and control measures, such as appropriate hand hygiene and the correct application of basic precautions during invasive procedures, are simple and low-cost, but require staff accountability and behavioral change.
- Identifying local determinants of the HAI burden;
- Improving reporting and surveillance systems at the national level;
- Ensuring minimum requirements in terms of facilities and dedicated resources available for HAI surveillance at the institutional level, including microbiology laboratories’ capacity;
- Ensuring that core components for infection control are in place at the national and health-care setting levels;
- Implementing standard precautions, particularly best hand hygiene practices at the bedside;
- Improving staff education and accountability;
- Conducting research to adapt and validate surveillance protocols based on the reality of developing countries;
- Conducting research on the potential involvement of patients and their families in HAI reporting and control.